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Education, the essentials of man's existence is a by-product of the white man's colonization activities in Africa. It came through the church – the missionaries.
The missionaries planned the school activities in such a manner that it accommodates character moulding and knowledge of one's environment, including his health.
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Ebonyi State Governor, Chief David Umahi has promised to develop Afikpo, Onueke and Ikwo in line with urban renewal policy of his administration.
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It was a day of reckoning Tuesday the 20th June for Mr. Isaac Nkale Nweke (alias Bamayi) when the book of record of his notorious life was opened and nemesis caught up with him as he was alleged to have abducted a psychiatric patient and forced her into sex in a forest.
Bamayi, a native of Abianji Noyo in Alike, Ikwo L.G.A was reported to have abducted Mrs Ngozi Nwedu Abbah of Ndiakpurata village in Echialike Community, who was returning home from her place of local medication, at about 2:30pm.
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One zillion 'THANKS' are not enough in appreciation of what God has done and has been doing for our family especially for our mother in the name of Rev. Fr. Raymond Ifeanyichukwu Ezeonu.
Hello readers. I hope your week was swell. I have decided to write this piece on something quite different today. I agree that it is not always the best to compare but in this case, I will in order to highlight areas where in my opinion, Abakaliki should be improving.
Basically, defining philosophy is difficult and controversial, not least because it claims the privilege of determining its own rules. An indirect approach of comparing it to other activities, to seek parallels and analogies might therefore help. We might consider the philosopher in different roles – as joker, as actor and – in this article – as spy.
Pope: To Be A Disciple, Jesus Must Be The Center Of Your Life … Says The way of Christ is the Way of Persecution … Advises New Cardinals
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Gadhafi was born to Abu Meniar and Aisha in an inconsequential tribal family of al-Qadhadhfa on 7th June, 1942.
Much of his early years were spent in Sirte, which was a desert region in western Libya. Born in Italian occupied Libya, he witnessed the country gain independence in 1951.
Since an early age, he was influence by the Arab nationalist movement and had grown to fancy for Egyptian leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, who later was prominent in his revolutionary tactics.
Academically, he achieved his preliminary education from a local elementary school after which the family moved to Sabha for better educational opportunities.
However, his involvement in the protest against Syria’s secession from United Arab Republic led to the family relocation to Misrata.
In 1963, he enrolled at the University of Libya in Benghazi to study history, but dropped out of the same to join military. He trained himself at the Royal Military Academy.
Reckoning British as imperialists and publicly announcing his insurrection against everything English, he commissioned a central committee of the Free Officers Movement in 1964.
Graduating from the Academy in 1965, he took up the post of a communications officer in the army’s signal corps.
He moved to Britain for further military training attaining which, he returned to Libya.
Meanwhile, King Idris popularity sharply declined in the country through the later half of the 1960s.
Not only did the level of corruption increase with the exploitation of the oil wealth, but the Idris-led government was seen as a pro-Israeli.
As such, in 1969, when Idris traveled to Turkey and Greece for Summer vacations, Gadhafi’s free officers movement capitalized on the opportunity and launched operation Jerusalem with a motive to overthrow the government.
Meeting little resistance, he abolished the monarchy to form Libya Arab Republic. He claimed to bring an end to the corrupt practices and establish massive change in the social, economic and political arena of the country.
He formed a 12-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) which was Libya’s new ruling body and declared himself as its chairman.
Subsequently, he became the de-facto head of states as well. He appointed himself as the colonel and took on the post of commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
During his early days of power, he brought about numerous changes in the social and the economic front, starting off by increasing the prices of Libyan oil.
This was after he realized that the reigning terms and conditions were benefiting for the foreign countries, rather than Libya state.
An increase in the price of oil acted favourably for the country and brought about increased revenue with greater state control.
He even announced the nationalization of active foreign oil producers in Libya. This move proved to be an economic success, with elevated per-captia income and GDP.
Additionally, he ordered the shutting down of the American and British military bases in Libya and the replacement of Gregorian calendar with the Islamic one. He even forbade the sale of alcohol in the country.
In 1970, he expelled the last few Italians who had remained in the country with a quest to launch Arab nationalism against British or more appropriately, western imperialism.
He removed the Jewish community from Libya. He strengthened Libya’s relationship with France and the Soviet Union, purchasing weapons from the later, which directly affected the country’s relationship with the U.S. The gap further widened when he supported the Palestinian in the Israeli-Arab conflict.
For waging war against the Israelis, who were in turn supported by United States, he administered the founding of Jihad Fund and First Nasserite Volunteers centre. He supported various militant groups across the world, encouraging their revolutionary activities and liberation struggles and rebuffing off any proclamation of them as “terrorists”.
He gained help from Arab nationalist regimes in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Sudan who immediately recognized the influence of Naseer’s Arab nationalism in Libya.
In 1972, his Pan-Arab ideas which called for a political federation, however did not realize on account of the radical Libyan policies.
In 1973, he came up with the 3rd Universal Theory, which rejected the imperialism practised by the western states and communist powers and instead, advocated nationalism, leading to the creation of Islamic and 3rd world’s against imperialism.
He based his ideology on Islam and the teachings of the Quran.
From 1975-1978, Gadhafi came up with three short volumes of 3rd Universal Theory which was collectively published as “The Green Book”.
The book provided a detailed explanation of his political philosophies. It threw light on the problems faced by liberal democracy and capitalism and promoted his policies as a redeeming factor.
The continuous expenditure of oil revenues, led to widespread contention among the public who launched several attacks on him and RCC leaders.
Towards the end of the 1970s, he involved the Libyan military in several foreign conflicts, including in Egypt and Sudan, and the blood civil war in Chad.
In 1977, he dissolved the Libyan Arab Republic to form the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
In 1978, he stepped down as the Secretary-General of GPC but continued his service as the commander in-chief.
The government then moved towards socialism and paid much emphasis on equality.
This raised alarm for the government as many turned critical of it.
The beginning of the 1980s spelled economic disaster for Libya as oil revenues crashed considerably.
Worsening the economic damage was spoiled relations with other foreign countries.
In 1981, the United States President, Ronald Reagan called him, ‘international Pariah/ and mad-dog of the Middle East.
Reagan further reduced the involvement of U.S. embassy workers and companies to diminish their operation in Libya to zero.
By 1984, Britain took broke off its diplomatic ties with Libya. The U.S. bombing of 1986 further increased his reputation as an anti-imperialist both domestically and across the Arab world.
The period between 1987 and 1978 was a revolution within a revolution. It witnessed various economic and military reforms including establishment of small business and reform in industry and agricultural sector.
Meanwhile, popular militia replaced army and police. Several failed coup attempts were made but he escaped all of them.
The dawn of the 20th century witnessed his rejection of Pan-Arab nationalism and adoption of Pan Africanism. He further initiated a developing tie with Britain and U. S. relations with China, North Korea and European Union also improved.
His improved relations with U. S. did not bring an end to his anti-western rhetoric as he called for anti-imperialism front across Africa along with Hugo Chavez of Venezuela.
On the economic front, he increased privatization much against the policies advocated in his Green Book.
With the commencement of the Arab Springs, which resulted in the forceful exit of dictators and rulers from the Arab states, Gadhafi grew wary of it as demonstration, riots and protests broke out throughout Libya.
Though he used aggressive force to curtail the riots, the violence only infuriated the republic who became even more determined to remove him from the ruling position.
The military intervention of NATO saw the rebels winning over the region of Tripoli which was largely his support domain.
This brought a symbolic end to his rule. Warrants against him were issued while NTC became the legitimate governing body of Libya.
Gadhafi married twice. His first wife, Fatiha al-Nari bore him a son in 1970, while the second wife Safia Farkash. The couple was blessed with seven children.
In 2011, after the take over of Tripoli; he moved to Sirte and proposed to negotiate with the National Transitional Council (NTC) but in vain.
He traveled from one residence to another to escape death.
There is no proper evidence as to what caused or who led to his death as the information available is varied and contradictory.
On October 20, 2011, Gadhafi broke out of Sirte’s Destrict 2 in a joint civilian – military convoy, hoping to take refuge in the Jarref Valley.
As official account of the NTC said, Gadhafi was caught in a cross-fire and died from his bullet wounds.
In the aftermath of his death, he was buried at an unidentified location in the desert.
His crime was Gadhafism; an ideology advocating a strong United Africa which prioritized the interests of the indigenous masses over the interest of the foreign corporate bourgeoisie.
Muammar Gadhafi inherited one of the poorest nations in Africa, however, but the time he was assassinated, Gadhafism had the highest GDP per capita and highest life expectancy in Africa. Less people live below the poverty line than in most European countries.
After NATO’s invasion in 2011, Libya’s economy is now in shambles.
The fall of Gadhafi’s administration has precipitated all of the country’s worst-case scenario; the rise of Islamist’s power, tribal massacre, genocide of black Libyans, suicide bombers, a collapsed economy and the concentration of oil profits in the hands of corrupt, well-connected elites.
A central pillar of Gadhafism was the equal distribution of wealth and oil profits. He silenced the corrupt foreign voices that had controlled Libya’s oil under King Idriss before Gadhafi came.
The redistribution of oil money meant that these profits were deposited directly into every Libyan citizen’s bank account. Nowadays, the new NATO backed regime in Libya has granted Exxon-mobil and BP hefty oil concessions.
Unsurprisingly, neither company appears too inclined to continue circulating oil wealth to reach the peasants as Gadhafi was doing.
For over 40 years, Gadhafism promoted economic democracy and used the nationalized oil wealth to sustain progressive social welfare programmes for all Libyans.
The IMF, which helped Libyan finance ministry craft annual budget, has raised a red flag, surrounding these programmes. The IMF called these programmes, unsustainable, pervasive, discretionary subsidies. Once more, we see history circling around to secure western power, while weakening the local populace.
Another pillar of Gadhafism was the championing of women’s rights. Unlike many other Arab nations, women in Libya had right to education, hold jobs, divorce, hold property and have income.
The United Nations Human Rights Council praised Gadhafi for his promotion of women’s rights.
When Col. Gadhafi seized power in 1969, few women went to university. In his time, more than half of Libya’s University students are women. One of the first laws Gadhafi passed in 1970 was an equal pay for equal work law.
Nowadays, the new “democratic” Libyan regime is clamping down on women’s rights. Immediately after Gadhafi’s fall, Libyan’s new leader, Mustafa Abdul-Jalil, declared invalid, all laws not conforming to sharia.
With Gadhafi assassinated, the strongly patriarchal tribal warlords and their militia have largely taken his place.
The central government in Libya is weak and under the present conditions, has little chance of controlling them. Islamist militiamen have grown more aggressive, unilaterally imposing their own strict rules on women.
Just recently, a renowned Libyan poet and University Lecturer, Aicha Almagrabi, was stopped and beaten by Militiamen. Her offence being alone in a car with men with a male relative as a guardian. One can imagine what countless other women are enduring in the new “democratic” Libya which the western nations preferred to Gadhafism.
Despite Libya being a small nation, Mr. Gadhafi paid one-quarter of the African Union’s bills. Now the African union has been reduced to begging the European Union (EU) for funds to keep the lights on.
By loosing Gadhafi, Africa may also have lost Libya Africans, who supported the intervention in Libya, now have a similar looks on their faces as the Arabs who supported the intervention in Iraq.
Perhaps, Gadhafi’s greatest crime, in the eyes of NATO, was his desire for a strong and United States of Africa.
In fact, in August 2011, President Barrack Obama seized the 30 billion U.S. dollars from Libya’s Central Bank which Gadhafi has earmarked for the establishment of the African IMF and African Central Bank.
Perhaps, the greatest legacy of Gadhafi’s life, was the manner of his death. He did not look for a sacrificial lamb, instead he chose to be one himself.
While Gadhafi may lie in an unmarked grave in the desert somewhere, he lives on the hearts and minds of progressive Libyans and Africans.
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